City of Tulsa and Oklahoma Statistics
The City of Tulsa is located in northeastern Oklahoma and is Oklahoma’s second largest urban area. According to census data released February 15, 2011, Tulsa County has a population of 603,403. Census reports revealed the population was 69.2% Caucasian, 10.7% African American, 11% Hispanic or Latino origin, 6% American Indian, 2.3% Asian, and 5.85% two or more races.
From 1998 to 2011, the Oklahoma Domestic Violence Fatality Review Board identified 1,059 homicides (an average of 81 deaths per year) resulting from domestic violence that occurred in Oklahoma. There were 219 deaths (20.6% of the state total) reported for Tulsa County in that time frame. While only 16% of the state population, Tulsa accounted for 21% of the fatalities. Oklahoma is currently ranked 11th in women murdered by men according to the Violence Policy Center (Washington DC) report issued in September, 2011. There were more than 21,000 domestic violence calls to the Tulsa County 911 system in 2011.
38 females were murdered by males in Oklahoma in 2011. The homicide rate among females murdered by males in Oklahoma was 1.99 per 100,000 in 2011. Oklahoma ranked 3rd in the United States for females murdered by males. For homicides in which the age of the victim was reported (36 homicides), four female homicide victims (11 percent) were less than 18 years old and three victims (eight percent) were 65 years of age or older. The average age was 40 years old.
Out of the 38 female homicide victims, one was Asian or Pacific Islander, one was American Indian or Alaskan Native, nine were black adn 27 were white.
For homicides in which the weapon used could be identified, 59 percent of female victims (20 out of 34) were shot and killed with guns. Of these, 90 percent (18 victims) were killed with handguns. There were five females killed with knives or other cutting instruments, and seven females killed by bodily force.
For homicides in which the victim to offender relationship could be identified, 97 percent of female victims (36 out of 37) were murdered by someone they knew. One female victim was killed by a stranger. Of the victims who knew their offenders, 61 percent (22 victims) were wives, common-law wives, ex-wives, or girlfriends of the offenders. Among the female intimates who were murdered, 73 percent (16 victims) were killed with guns; 88 percent of these (14 victims) were shot and killed with handguns.
For homicides in which the circumstances could be identified, 84 percent (31 out of 37) were not related to the commission of any other felony. Of these, 42 percent (13 homicides) involved arguments between the victim and the offender.
Myth: She asked for it.
Fact: No one asks to be sexually assaulted under any circumstances.
Myth: Men are not at risk.
Fact: 1 in 12 victims of sexual assault are men, and they are less likely to report.
Myth: Victims lie, they want revenge or attention.
Fact: Less than 2% of ALL reported rapes are false accusations.
- Emotional and psychological types of abuse are more prevalent and more damaging than physical or sexual abuse, according to a 2006 Center for the Advancement of Women research, yet they are more difficult to recognize due to their less tangible nature.
- 34 percent of women surveyed in 2002 reported being victims of sexual coercion by a husband or a boyfriend in their lifetime, yet many still question whether sexual violence can and does occur in the context of intimate relationships, particularly marriage.
- Physical violence isn’t rare in intimate relationships either. 10 percent (521,740) of violent crimes in 2003 were committed by the victim’s intimate partner.
- A 2005 nationwide study by the Violence Policy Center (VPC) estimates that nearly 1,200 Americans die each year in murder-suicides. 75 percent of murder-suicides occur in the home.
- Annually in the United States, 503,485 women are stalked by an intimate partner.
- The health-related costs of rape, physical assault, stalking and homicide committed by intimate partners exceed $5.8 billion each year. Of that amount, nearly $4.1 billion are for direct medical and mental health care services, and nearly $1.8 billion are for the indirect costs of lost productivity or wages.
You may be in an emotionally abusive relationship if your partner:
- Calls you names, insults you or continually criticizes you.
- Does not trust you and acts jealous or possessive.
- Tries to isolate you from family or friends.
- Monitors where you go, who you call and who you spend time with.
- Does not want you to work.
- Controls finances or refuses to share money.
- Punishes you by withholding affection.
- Expects you to ask permission.
- Threatens to hurt you, the children, your family or your pets.
- Humiliates you in any way.
- You may be in a physically abusive relationship if your partner has ever:
- Damaged property when angry (thrown objects, punched walls, kicked doors, etc.).
- Pushed, slapped, bitten, kicked or choked you.
- Abandoned you in a dangerous or unfamiliar place.
- Scared you by driving recklessly.
- Used a weapon to threaten or hurt you.
- Forced you to leave your home.
- Trapped you in your home or kept you from leaving.
- Prevented you from calling police or seeking medical attention.
- Hurt your children.
- Used physical force in sexual situations.
- You may be in a sexually abusive relationship if your partner:
- Views women as objects and believes in rigid gender roles.
- Accuses you of cheating or is often jealous of your outside relationships.
- Wants you to dress in a sexual way.
- Insults you in sexual ways or calls you sexual names.
- Has ever forced or manipulated you into to having sex or performing sexual acts.
- Held you down during sex.
- Demanded sex when you were sick, tired or after beating you.
- Hurt you with weapons or objects during sex.
- Involved other people in sexual activities with you.
- Ignored your feelings regarding sex.
1. Princeton Survey Research Associates International for the Center for the Advancement of Women, Violence against Women: A Report of Findings from National Focus Groups with Women and Teen Girls, October 2006.
2. Kathleen C. Basile, Prevalence of Wife Rape and Other Intimate Partner Sexual Coercion in a Nationally Representative Sample of Women, 17 Violence and Victims 511 (2002).
3. Princeton Survey Research Associates International for the Center for the Advancement of Women, Violence against Women: A Report of Findings from National Focus Groups with Women and Teen Girls, October 2006.
4. Catalano, Shannan. (2004). Criminal Victimization, 2003. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
5. Violence Policy Center, American Roulette: Murder-Suicide in the United States, May 2006. Available at http://www.vpc.org/press/0605amroul.htm
6. Patricia Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes, Extent, Nature, and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence, National Institute of Justice, 2000.
7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States, April 2003.
Battering or abuse is a pattern of behavior that seeks to establish power and control over another person through fear and intimidation.
- Emotional – verbal abuse, isolation, humiliation
- Psychological – threats, stalking, intimidation
- Economic – transportation, work, credit, insurance
- Legal threats – false accusations, deportation
- Physical – scratching, hitting, choking, weapons
- Sexual – coerced sex, pornography
If somebody you know has been assaulted:
1. Validate feelings…BELIEVE THEM!
2. Encourage medical and police attention immediately.
3. Be a good listener.
4. Be supportive.
5. Respect the privacy of the victim.
If you have been assaulted:
1. Explore your options, it’s your decision to report to the police.
2. Do not shower, change your clothes, or brush your teeth.
3. Get medical attention for injuries, possible STD’s, and pregnancy.
4. Request a support person, such as an advocate.
Alcohol consumption, especially at harmful or hazardous levels, is a major contributor to the occurrence of intimate partner violence.
In the recent meta-analysis research, every study that examined alcohol use or excessive drinking as a risk factor for partner violence found a significant association, with correlation coefficients ranging from r = 0.21 to r = 0.57.
- Alcohol use directly affects cognitive and physical function, reducing self-control, leaving individuals less capable of negotiating a non-violent resolution to conflicts within relationships.
- In the United States of America, victims believed their partners to have been drinking prior to a physical assault in 55 percent of cases.
- According to the survey of violence against women in Canada, women who lived with heavy drinkers were five times more likely to be assaulted by their partners than those who lived with non-drinkers.
- Having a culturally supported expectation that drinking alcohol will lead to aggressive behavior increases the risk of committing violence towards a partner.
- In general, in individual cases, the higher the level of alcohol consumption, the more serious is the violence.
- In the US around 11 percent of all homicides between 1976 and 2002 were committed by an intimate partner.
- In the US it has been estimated that a 1 percent increase in the price of alcohol will decrease the probability of intimate partner violence towards women by about 5 percent.
- In the US, treatment for alcohol dependence among males significantly decreased husband-to-wife physical and psychological violence and wife-to- husband marital violence six and 12 months later.
- Alcohol consumption in victims of intimate partner violence has also been shown, although at a lower level than in perpetrators. For example, a Swiss study indicated that victims had been under the influence of alcohol in over 9 percent of incidents of intimate partner violence (compared with 33 percent of perpetrators), while in Iceland, 22 percent of female domestic violence victims reported using alcohol following the event as a mechanism for coping.
- In some societies, both heavy drinking and violent behaviors towards female partners are associated with masculinity.
- Focusing just on governmental costs of services in a developed society, the costs of policing, fire and social work services attributable to alcohol often far outweigh the costs of health services.
- The economic costs of partner violence in the US are $ 12.6 billion a year.
1. World Health Organization. (2002). First World Report on Violence and Health. Retrieved on April 24, 2008 from http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/
2. Room, R., Babor, T., Rehm, J. (2005). Alcohol and public health. Lancet, 365: 519-30.
3. Bureau of Justice Statistics (1998). Alcohol and crime: an analysis of national data on the prevalence of alcohol involvement in crime. Washington, DC, United States Department of Justice.
4. World Health Organization. (2002). First World Report on Violence and Health. Retrieved on April 24, 2008 from http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/
5. Field, C., Caetano, R., Nelson, S. (2004). Alcohol and violence related cognitive risk factors associated with the perpetration of intimate partner violence. Journal of Family Violence, 19, 270-275.
6. WHO Expert Committee on Problems Related to Alcohol Consumption. (2007). Second report. (WHO technical report series; no. 944)
7. Bureau of Justice Statistics (2004). Homicide trends in the United States. Washington, DC. United States Department of Justice.
8. Markovitz, S. (2000). The price of alcohol, wife abuse, and husband abuse. Southern Economic Journal, 67, 279-304.
9. Stuart, G. et al. (2003). Reductions in marital violence following treatment for alcohol dependence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18, 1113-1131.
10. World Health Organization. (2006). Intimate Partner Violence and Alcohol Fact sheet. Retrieved on April 23, 2008 from http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/factsheets/ft_intimate.pdf
11. World Health Organization. (2006). Intimate Partner Violence and Alcohol Fact sheet. Retrieved on April 23, 2008 from http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/factsheets/ft_intimate.pdf
12. WHO Expert Committee on Problems Related to Alcohol Consumption. (2007). Second report. (WHO technical report series; no. 944)
13. Waters, H. et al (2004). The economic dimensions of interpersonal violence. Geneva: World Health Organization.